نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

یکی از اصلی‌ترین کارکردهای نظام آموزش دانشگاهی فراهم نمودن نیروی انسانی مورد نیاز نهادها و بخش‌های مختلف جامعه می‌باشد، کارکردی که شاید امروز به اصلی‌ترین چالش و آسیب این نظام‌های آموزشی تبدیل شده است. این همه در حالی است که در برنامه درسی رشته‌های مختلف، واحدهای درسی جهت کارآموزی دانشجو در محیط‌های سازمانی پیش بینی شده است. مقاله حاضر در جستجوی عوامل پدیدار گشتن این وضعیت می‌باشد و علت اصلی را نوع مواجهه با طراحی این محیطها می‌داند. چنانچه با اتخاذ رویکردی سازنده گرایانه و کل نگر، مسائل و پروژه‌های واقعی محیط کار محور فعالیت‌های کارآموزی قرار گیرد، می‌توان به شکل گیری رویکردی برد- برد کمک نمود. مقاله حاضر سعی می‌کند با معیار قرار دادن اصول اولیه آموزش به نقد محیط‌های کارآموزی پرداخته و با تأسی بر نظریه کسب دانش، سازنده گرایی را مناسب طراحی اینگونه محیط ها می داند و به تشریح فرایند طراحی محیط‌های یادگیری سازنده گرا جهت گذراندن درس کارآموزی می پردازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the apprenticeship curriculum: from Chaotic to Constructivist learning environments

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Karami 1
  • Ameneh Seilaneh 2

1 Frdowsi University of Mashhad

2 Frdowsi University of Mashhad

چکیده [English]

One of the main functions of academic systems is supplying manpower of various sectors of society which has become a great challenge for such systems. However in the curriculum of various academic subjects, during the final semesters, practical courses for students have been considered, which are intended to make them ready for corporate environments. This article tries to find factors which have part in this situation and believes this is due to the design of such environments. In fact students are somehow wandering through the organizations to pass these courses; and academic system does not play an active role in shaping the learning environment. This leads to unhappiness and lack of employers' interest to accept the students. Therefore students are not successful in the enterprise environment. Perhaps the main concern of students is receiving institutional approval for apprenticeship courses and lack of practicality results in that these courses not be taken seriously. We can help to form a win-win approach providing that real issues and work-base projects are manipulated for training based on constructivist and holistic approach. Based on the basic principles of education this paper tries to review apprenticeship environments and then by using constructivism theory, considers constructivism approach as an ideal method to design such environments and then describes the process of designing learning environments for apprenticeship courses.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • apprenticeship
  • learning environment
  • academic curriculum
  • Constructivism
Abbasi, F., & Haji Hosseini, H. (2008). Iran's latest innovation strategy of enterprises to engage in academic institutions. Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, 51, 120-99, (In Persian).
Abbasi, M. R. (1997). Evaluation of vocational training. Journal of Cooperatives, 70, 40-57, (In Persian).
Anderson, J. (1998). Service Learning and Teacher Education. Washington, D.C: ERIC Clearinghouse on teacher deucation. [Ed 421481] http://chirom Valdosta. Edv/whuitt/files/ser rice2.html. Asheville. 2006. "Serving to learn, and learning to serve". http://www.unca.edu/keycenter/ about.htm
Baldeston, J. (2000). Knowledge & university. Journal of Higher Education, 26(1).
Boettcher, J. (2007). Ten Core Principles for Designing Effective Learning Environments: Insights from Brain Research and Pedagogical Theory. Innovate, 3 (3). http://www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=54
Cooper, M. (2000). The Big Dummy’s Guide to Service Learning: 27 simple answers to good questions on faculty – programmatic, student, administrative, & non- profit issues”.http://ww w.fiu.edu/~time 4 chg /library/bigdummy.html
Cronje, J. (2000). Paradim Lost.Towards intergrating Objectivist and Constractivist. http://it.coe.uga.edu/itforum/home.html
Danesh pajoh, z. (2003). Assessment of professional skills in middle school science and mathematics teachers and offer ways to improve its quality. Journal of Educational Innovations, 6, 93-69, (In Persian).
Fardanesh, H. (2007). Classification of design patterns based on constructivist approaches to learning and teaching. Studies and Psychology, 9 (2), 21-5, (In Persian).
Fardanesh, H. & Karami, M. (2006). Identify appropriate instructional design model for industrial training. Journal of Curriculum Studies program, 2 (8), 131-106, (In Persian).
Johnston, A. K., & Tinning, R. S. (2001). Meeting the challenge of problem-based learning developing the Facilitators. J Nurse Education Today, 2, 161-169.
Jonassen, D. H. (1999b). Designing consructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed) Instructional design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2, 215-239.
Jonassen, D. H. McAleese, T. M. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1993). A Manifesto for a Constructivist Approach to Technology in Higher Education. In Duffy, T. M., Lowyck, J., & Jonassen, D. H. (Eds.) the design of constructivistic learning environments: Implications for instructional design and the use of technology, Heidelburg, FRG: Springer-Verlag, http://cad017.gcal. ac.uk/clti/ papers/TMPaper11.html
Jonassen, D.H. (1999). Toward a design theory of problem solving.Educational Technology. Research & Development, 48 (4), 63-85.
Hoseini, S. (2014a). Reflections on the need for Establish procedures in apprenticeship and internship in the universities. National Conference on apprenticeship, a window to effective communication industry and university, Babolsar, Mazandaran University, (In Persian).
Hoseini, S. (2014b). Necessary. Objectives and process of apprenticeship and internship, National Conference on apprenticeship. A window to effective communication industry and university, Babolsar, Mazandaran University, (In Persian).
Karagiorgi, Y., & Symeou, L. (2005). Translating Constructivism into Instructional Design: Potential and Limitations. Educational Technology & Society, 8 (1), 17-27.
Kridel, C. (2010). Encyclopedia of Curriculum Studies. California: Sage.
Lee, Y. (2006). Applying the ADDIE instructional Design model to multimedia Richproject-based learning Experiences in the Korean classroom. TheDepartment ofInstructional Design and Technology, 20 (3), 345-360.
LeMontree, S. (2014). Apprenticeships VS Internships. http://expinstitute.com/2014/04/
Apprenticeships-vs-internships/
Maarefvand, M. (2009). Learner-centered training, implementation of new methods of learning and training in Social Work, Social Science Quarterly. 50, 172 -207, (In Persian).
Mendenhall, A. (2010). Examining the Use Of First Principles Of Instruction By Instructional Designers In A Short-Term, High Volume, Rapid Production Of Online K-12 Teacher Professional Development Modules. The Florida State University
Merrill, d. M. (2007). A Task-Centered Instructional Strategy. Journal of research on Technology in Education, 2007, 40(1), 33- 50.
Merrill, M. D. (2002a). First principles of instruction.Educational Technology Research &Development, 50(3), 43-59.
Merrill, M. D. (2002b). A pebble-in-the-pond model for instructional design. Performance Improvement, 41(7), 39-44.
Merrill, D. (2001). Components of Instruction toward a Theoretical Tool for Instructional design. Instructional science, 29, 291-310.
Millan, L.P.1., Semer, B., Rodrigues, J.M. & Gianini .R.J. (2010).Traditional learning and problem-based learning: self-perception of preparedness for internship. Rev Assoc Med Bras, 58(5), 594-618.
Moallem, M. (2006). What Is Instructional Systems Design? Lecture Notes 1.
Moallem, M. (2001). Applying Constructivist and Objectivist Learning Theories in the Design of A Web-Based Course: Implications for Practice. Educational Technology & Society, 4 (3).
Neville, A.J. (2009). Problem-based learning and medical education forth years on. Medical Principles and Practice, 18, 1–9.
Rastgarpour, H., Beyranvand, F. & Kavosian, J. (2008). The effect of training pattern analysis, design, production, implementation and assessment of mathematics achievement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 3 (13), 84-74, (In Persian).
Razavi, A. (2006). Modern Topics in Educational Technology. Ahwaz Shaid Chamran University, (In Persian).
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). Instructional Design Theores and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory. London: LEA.
Reigeluth, C.M. (1997). Instructional Theory, Practitioner Needs, and New Directions: Some Reflections Educational Technology, (37)1, 42-47.
Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology .Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson / Merrill Prentice Hall.
Reynolds, J. M. & Hancock, D. R. (2010). Problem-based learning in a higher education environmental biotechnology course.Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 47(2), 175–186.
Roche, W. P., Scheetz, A. P., Dane F. C., Parish, D. C. & OShea, J. T. (2003). Medical students' attitudes in a PBL curriculum trust, altruism, and cynicism. Academic Medicine, 78(4), 398-402.
Shah Wali, M., Azadi, H. & Yusefi, M. (2004). New training program for agricultural students. Economic Jihad, 267, 43-51, (In Persian).
Steedman, H. (2012). Overviews of apprenticeship systems and issues ilo contribution to the G20 G20 Task Force on Employment, International Labour Organization 2012, First published
Taheri, A., Taheri, R. & Arsalan, A. (2014). Evaluation of apprenticeship of the industrial sector in Yazd province. National Conference on apprenticeship, a window to effective communication industry and university, Babolsar, Mazandaran University. (In Persian (
Tavakol, M. (2005). Using problem-based learning in medical education. Medical Education Development Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. http://www. Dilenvironment.com. (In Persian (
Van Merrienboer, J. J. G., Kirschner, P. A., & Kester, L. (2003). Taking the load off a leamer's mind: Instructional design for complex learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 5-13.
Wandahl .S., Olsen. W. & Ussing .L. F. (2010). Relevance of Academic Internship to the Quality in Construction Management Education. The International Journal of Engineering Education, 27(5), 1046–1053.
Wiegand, T. & Moloney. K. A. (2004). Rings, circles, and null-models for point pattern analysis in ecology. OIKOS .104, 209- 229.