نوع مقاله : مروری

نویسندگان

هرمزگان

چکیده

هدف اصلی این پژوهش بررسی تحول نظریه‌ گاردنر از هوش به ذهن می‌باشد. در مقاله استدلال شده است که بیشتر دیدگاه‌هایی در این زمینه مطرح شده است بر توانایی‌های زبانی و ریاضی تأکید داشتند و به همین دلیل گاردنر آنها را مورد نقد قرار داد و نظریه‌ هوش‌های چندگانه‌ خود را مطرح نمود. او پس از بیست‌وسه سال در سال 2006، نظریه‌ دیگری مطرح نمود و به معرفی پنج ذهن پرداخت. نتایج این پژوهش حاکی از آن است که گاردنر نه تنها به عنوان یک روان‌شناس بلکه بیشتر به عنوان یک سیاست‌گذار و نظریه‌پرداز به معرفی ذهن‌ها پرداخته است. او معتقد است سیاست‌های آموزشی امروز که هنوز برای یادگیری طوطی‌وار ارزش قائل است، دانش‌آموزان را برای جهان دیروز آماده می‌کند. به زعم او همه‌ افراد در آینده به این پنج ذهن نیاز خواهند داشت و سعی او بر این است تا مخاطبان را به ضرورت پرورش این ذهن‌ها مجاب سازد نه اینکه به معرفی ویژگی‌های شناختی و مفهومی آنها بپردازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Examination of the Evolution of Gardner's Theory from Intelligence to Mind: Five Minds for the Future

نویسندگان [English]

  • Eghbal Zarei
  • Hossein Zainali pour
  • Abouzae Behrouzi

Hormozgan

چکیده [English]

The main purpose of this paper is the examination of the evolution of Gardner's theory from intelligence to mind. To achieve this goal, descriptive-analytic method was used. One of the important issues in psychology is the topic of intelligence and individual differences. So far many scientists have spoken about this topic, and psychologists have proposed different theories about it. Most of these theories emphasized on language and mathematical skills and that's why Howard Gardner criticized them and introduced his multiple intelligences theory. After twenty-three years in 2006, he has put forward another theory in his book "Five minds for the future" and introduced the five's minds. In this paper we argue that Gardner, not only as a psychologist, but also as a politician and theorist has introduced these minds. He believes that education policy today still appreciates rote learning that prepares students for the world of yesterday. He believes that everyone would need these five minds in the future and he tries to convince the audiences to develop these minds rather than introduces the conceptual and cognitive features of them.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Intelligence
  • intelligence theories
  • multiple intelligences
  • Gardner
  • Five minds
Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. (M. Safari, Trans). Tehran: School Publishing. (In Persia).
Atkinson, R. Atkinson, R. Smith, E. Bem, D. & Hvksma, S.N (2010). The field of psychology Hylgard. (M.N Baraheni and colleagues). Tehran: Growth. (In Persian).
Furnham, A., Tang. T., Lester, D. O'Connor, R. & Montgomery, R. (2002). Estimates of multiple intelligences: Sex and national difference in the perception of one self and famous people. European psychologist, 7(4), 245-255
Gardner, H. & Hatch, H. (1989). Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of Theory of Multiple intelligence. Educational Researcher, 18(8), 4-9
Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence Reframed Multiple intelligences for 21st century. New York. Basic Books
Gardner, H. (2006). Five minds for the future. New York: Harvard Business School Press
Gardner, H. (2007). Five minds for the future (S. Me'mari & S Noorabadi Trans). Tehran: Savalan. (In Persian)
Gardner, H. (2011). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. (10nd Ed). New York: Basic Books
Nolen, J. L. (2003). Multiple intelligences in the classroom. Education, 124, 1, 115-119
Pink, D. (2005). A whole new mind: Moving from the informational age to the conceptual age. New York: Penguin.
Robinson, M. N & Robinson, H.C. (1965). The mentally retarded child. (F. Maher Trans). Tehran: Quds Razavi, Institute of Printing & Publishing. (In Persian)
Seif, A. (2007). Educational psychology (Psychology of Learning and Teaching). Tehran: Aware Publishing. (In Persian).
Seif, A. (2008). Measurement, assessment and training evaluation. Tehran: Publish time. (In Persian).
Seif, A. (2010). Modern educational psychology, psychology of learning (6th Ed). Tehran: Publish time. (In Persian).
Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An
introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5-14.
Sharifi, H.P. (2003). Theory and application of intelligence and personality tests. Tehran: Word Publication. (In Persian)
Sharifi, H.P. (2005). A Pilot Study of Multiple Intelligence theory of Gardner, in the areas of curriculum and students' adjustment. Journal of Educational Innovations, 4(11), 11-34. (In Persian)
Shepard, J. S. (2004). Multiple Ways of Knowing: Fostering Resiliency through Providing Opportunities for Participating in Learning. Reclaiming Children and Youth: The Journal of Strength-based Interventions, 12(4), 210-216