نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسنده

خوارزمی

چکیده

هدف اصلی این پژوهش، ارائه بینشی سازه گرا/ واقع گرا درباره ویژگی‌ها و عناصر ماهوی علم بر مبنای تحول تاریخی دیدگاه‌های فلسفی درباره علم در راستای بازاندیشی درباره آموزش علوم می‌باشد. برای دست‌یابی به این هدف از روش پژوهش تحلیل مفهوم‌ها و نیز ارزیابی ساختار مفهومی بهره گرفته شد. بر مبنای یافته‌های حاصل از این پژوهش، مدلی دو بعدی در تبیین عناصر علم و ویژگی‌های ماهوی مرتبط با آنها به دست آمد که در یک بعد آن عناصر چرخه علم شامل مشاهده و تجربه، نظم و نظریه، و سرانجام پیش بینی و در بعد دیگر، ویژگی‌هایی برای علم بر شمرده شد که برخی ناظر به ویژگی‌های سازه‌ای و برخی دیگر ناظر به ویژگی واقعی علم می‌باشند. بر این اساس، نکته‌هایی برای بازاندیشی درباره آموزش علوم با تاکید بر نقش فرهنگ در جهت دهی به مشاهده و تجربه، ماهیت تبیینی- استنباطی- ابداعی نظریه‌ها و ایده‌های علمی و در نتیجه موقتی و تحول یابنده علم، ماهیت خلاقانه، هنری و روش آزاد علم و آزمون پذیری ایده‌ها و نظریه‌های علمی بر اساس ملاک‌هایی چون انسجام، دقت، میزان سازگاری با وضعیت‌های تجربی پسین و تقریب‌های جسورانه و پیچیده مورد نظر قرار گرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

A constructivist/realistic vision toward the nature and elements of science: A base for revising in science education

نویسنده [English]

  • saeid Zarghami-Hamrah

Kharazmi

چکیده [English]

The present study aims to offer a constructivist/realistic vision toward the nature and elements of science according to the historical evolution of philosophical perspectives on science. This is done with the aim of revising in science education. According to the findings obtained by this study a two-dimensional model is proposed for explaining elements of science and the related essential characteristics. This model involves the elements of the science cycle followed in science, including observation and experiment, regulation and theory, and finally prediction in one dimension. And in the other dimension the relevant characteristics of science are revealed which includes some constructivist as well as some realist characteristics. With regard to the presented discussions some suggestions are presented for revising the science education. These suggestions include: realizing the role of culture in directing observation and experiment; addressing the explanatory/deductive/innovative nature of theories and scientific ideas, the temporary, and evolutionary nature of science, the creative and artistic nature of science, the free method of science, and the testability of scientific ideas and theories based on specific criteria such as coherence, precision, adaptability with the subsequent experiments and presenting bold and complex approximations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Philosophy of Science
  • Constructivism
  • realism
  • Science Education
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