نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه امیرکبیر

2 دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

هدف اصلی این پژوهش بررسی مشکلات معرفت‌شناختی یادگیری مفاهیم علوم تجربی توسط دانش‌آموزان می‌باشد. برای این منظور از مفهوم موانع معرفت‌شناختی و روش روانکاوی معرفت عینی موردنظر گاستون باشلار بهره گرفته شد. روش روانکاوی معرفت عینی دارای سه وجه عمدۀ روانکاوانه، معرفت‌شناختی و تاریخی است. روانکاوی معرفت عینی، با لحاظ این وجوه، به بررسی عوامل و موانعی که سد راه پیشرفت و توسعه علم شده‌اند، می‌پردازد. موانع معرفت‌شناختی علاوه بر نقش تعیین‌کننده‌ای که در پژوهش‌های علمی دارند، دارای پیامدهای تربیتی مهمی نیز در زمینه آموزش علوم تجربی هستند. در این نوشتار ضمن اشاره به دلالت‌های‌ تربیتی عمدۀ موانع معرفت‌شناختی در آموزش علوم تجربی، رویکردی جدید به آموزش علوم پیشنهاد شد. در رویکرد پیشنهادی بر استفاده از خطاهای معرفت‌شناختی دانش‌آموزان در جهت شناسایی و رفع موانع یادگیری تاکید شد. نتایج این پژوهش حاکی از آن است که به‌کارگیری پیامدهای موانع معرفت‌شناختی در آموزش علوم می‌تواند با شناسایی و رفع موانع یادگیری، از جوانب مختلف به ارتقا کیفیت آموزش علوم تجربی یاری رساند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The epistemological obstacles from Gaston Bachelard’s point of view and its educational implications in science education

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mousa Toumajiri 1
  • Iraj Nikseresht 2

1 Amirkabir University

2 Tehran University

چکیده [English]

The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the epistemological problems of learning the concepts of empirical sciences by students. For this purpose, the notion of epistemological obstacles and the psychoanalysis of objective knowledge method presented by Gaston Bachelor, was used. The psychoanalysis of objective knowledge method has three main aspects of psychoanalytic, epistemological, and historical. The psychoanalysis of objective knowledge, with regards to these aspects, addresses the factors and obstacles that have hampered the development and advancement of science. In addition to the determinative role played in scientific researches, epistemological obstacles also have important educational implications in the field of empirical science education. In this article, we will focus on the major educational implications of epistemological obstacles in the teaching of empirical sciences, and we propose a new approach to science education. The proposed approach emphasizes the use of epistemological errors in students to identify and eliminate learning obstacles. The results of the research indicate that application of the consequences of epistemological obstacles to science education can help to improve the quality of teaching science by identifying and eliminating learning obstacles from different aspects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bachelard
  • epistemological obstacles
  • empirical science education
  • Science Education
  • psychoanalysis of objective knowledge
  • educational obstacle
  • learning obstacles
  • prescience
  • scientific mentality
  • primitive mentality
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