نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

تربیت دبیر شهیدرجایی تهران

چکیده

هدف اصلی این پژوهش، واکاوی «یادگیری» از منظر زیست‌شناسی و بوم‌شناسی است. براین اساس، یادگیری به‌مثابه بخشی از فرایند شکل‌دهی به فیزیولوژی، ریخت‌شناسی و رفتار فرد در محدوده مرزهای ذات زیستی ارگانیسم، به‌منظور انطباق با محیط تعریف می‌شود. ازآنجاکه ذات زیستی کودک انسان در دوره بسیار طولانی تکامل و در بوم‌شناسی طبیعی خاصی شکل می‌گیرد، نوعی گرایش ذاتی به ارتباط با طبیعت در انسان وجود دارد که آن را زیست‌گرایی نامیده‌اند و به شکل مجموعه‌ای از تجربه‌های عاطفی و هیجانی بروز پیدا می‌کند که با قواعد یادگیری سازش‌یافته‌ای در ارتباط است و به بقاء گونه در آن زیستگاه خاص کمک می‌کند؛ لذا، به نحوی خودانگیخته و موقعیت‌مند، خط‌ سیر رشد و یادگیری کودک را هدایت می‌کند. درحالی‌که محیط رشد و یادگیری کودکان امروز بیشتر در فضاهای بسته‌ای است که در آن خودانگیختگی، تعامل و تحرک مستقل کودکان به‌شدت محدود می‌شود. به‌طورکلی، نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش حاکی از آن است که برای یادگیریِ درخور، باید امکان حضور خودانگیخته گروه‌های کودکان در محیط‌های طبیعی فراهم آید. این نتیجه‌گیری دلالت‌های مهمی برای برنامه‌ریزی سکونتگاه‌های انسانی و آموزش کودکان خواهد داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Nature and Outdoor Spaces’ Role in Childhood Learning based on a Biophilic Study

نویسندگان [English]

  • SeyedMohammad Behrooz
  • Esmaeil Zarghami

Shahid Rajaei Teacher Training University

چکیده [English]

The main porpuse of this paper is to investigate learning from a biological and ecological perspective. To do so, in an analytical study, learning is defined as part of the individual’s process of shaping physiology, morphology and behavior within the boundary of organism’s biological nature, to adjust to the environment. Since Children’s biological nature has been evolved in long-term evolution in a particular natural ecology, there is an innate tendency towards nature in human being which is called biophilia, which emerges as a set of emotional experiences which are related to the adaptive learning rules that have helped species survive in a particular habitat, and help children proceed in their learning trajectory spontaneously. But today, children’s environments are different from the ancestral habitat, mainly closed spaces in which children’s spontaneity and independent mobility is highly restricted. Thus this paper suggests as a result, that groups of children have more chance of being spontaneously in natural settings. This will have important implications for human settlement planning and children education.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Learning
  • Biology
  • ecology
  • nature
  • biophilia
  • independent mobility
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