نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

هدف اصلی این پژوهش، استنتاج اصول یاددهی-یادگیری از نو مفهوم‌پردازی شک دکارتی بر اساس انتقادهای معرفت‌شناختی شک سوفیستی پروتاگوراس است. برای دستیابی به این هدف از روش‌ پژوهش نقد بیرونی، استنباط، نو مفهوم‌پردازی و استنتاج بهره ‌گرفته ‌شد. یافته‌های به‌دست‌آمده حاکی از آن است که شیوۀ معرفتی دکارت در شک مقطعی- خطی، تعقل گرایی، آفت زدایی معرفتی ناپیوسته، استقلال ذاتی و خودمحوری انسان، کمیت گرایی، انتقادگرایی، قاعده‌مندی و انسجام گرایی برای اصول یاددهی- یادگیری در نظام تربیتی با انتقادهایی روبرو است. یکی از این انتقادها، نقدهایی است که شک سوفیستی پروتاگوراس بر ارائۀ قواعد کلی، اصالت و تساوی عقل، فاعل شناسا، میزان و معیار حقایق، ساختارمندی معرفتی، اتحاد و طبقه‌بندی علوم، نحوۀ شک ورزی و جستجوگری حقیقت، انتقادگرایی و انکار شرایط فرهنگی-اجتماعی به شک دکارتی وارد نموده و برای رفع این خلأ و اشکالات از دیدگاه خود به بازسازی و نو مفهوم‌پردازی آن پرداخته و با استنتاج اصول شک ورزانۀ پژوهشی متداوم، شک ورزی انتقادگرایانه، آفت زدایی کیفی، هنرگرایی، خودمحوری چندگانه، امتزاج افق‌ها و بازنمایی –توزیعی از آن در یاددهی-یادگیری مانع جزم‌گرایی و شک سیستمی در شک دکارتی شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

New-Conceptualization of Cartesian Doubt according to the Epistemological Criticisms of Protagoras Sophist Doubts in order to Deduce the Principles of Teaching-Learning

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohammad mozaffar 1
  • Seyed Mahdi Sjadi 1
  • Khosro Bagheri Noparast 2
  • Alireza Sadegzadeh Ghamsari 1

1 University Tarbiat Modares

2 University tehran

چکیده [English]

The present article is devised to deduce the new principles of new conceptualization of Cartesian doubt based on epistemological criticisms of Protagoras Sophist doubts. The findings of this study indicate that Descartes'epistemic style in a cross-sectional skepticism, Conjecture, discontinuous epistemic deterrence, intrinsic independence and self-centeredness of man, quantitativeism, criticism, rule of thumb, and coherence are criticized for the principles of teaching-learning in the educational system. One of these criticisms is the critiques made by the Protagoras Sophist doubts for cartesian doubts on the presentation of general rules, originality and equality of reason, the agent, the degree and criterion of truth, epistemic structuralism, the unification and classification of sciences, skepticism procedure and the search of truth, Criticism and denial of cultural-social conditions and in order to overcome this gap and defects, from its point of view, it has been redesigned. And with the inference of persistent research criticism, critical criticism, qualitative deterrence, artisticism, multiple self-orientation, the combination of horizons, representations- distribution of it in teaching-learning, it has hindered dogmatism and a systemic suspicion in Cartesian doubts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • doubt
  • Descartes' method doubt
  • sophist doubt
  • Protagoras
  • teaching-learning principles
  • new conceptualization
Arab, M. (2009). A Review of Methodology in Descartes Philosophy and Popper's Opinions, Wisdom and Philosophy, 5 (4), 55. (In Persian).
Bagheri, K. (2009). New Perspectives in the Philosophy of Education.Tehran: elm, 406. (In Persian).
Becker, L, C. (1999). History of the West's Ethics Philosophy. (Imam Khomeini Institute, Trans.). Qom: Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research, 29.
Copelston, F. (2009). History of Philosophy from Augustinas to Osco Toos. (I, Dadjou Trans.). Tehran: Soroush. Vol. II. 94.
Cushman. H. (1910). A beginners History of Philosophy, U S A. Cambridge Massachustts. Vol. 1. 66.
Dancy.J. (2010).A Companion to Epistemology. Blackwell: Publishing Ltd, 1.
Descartes, R. (1997). Descartes' Philosophy. (M. Sanai Dare biddy, Trans.). Tehran: Mullah El-Hedi Publication Ed.1, 230. (In Persian).
Descartes, R. (2006). Discourse on the Method of Rightly conducting the Reason and seeking Truth in the Sciences. (M. A. Foroughi, Trans.). Tehran: Niloofar, 231& 607. (In Persian).
Descartes, R. (2008). Meditations on First Philosophy. (A. Ahmadi's, Trans.). Tehran: samt, 316&603. (In Persian).
Descartes, R. (1968), Rules for Direction of the Mind, Great Books of the Western World, the University of Chicago.
Dony, W., & Harry, G. (Eds.). (1967), Descartes: A Collection of Critical Essays, Frankfurt.
Fatorchi, p. (2001). Protagoras relativism and new narratives. Quarterly Journal of the Mind. Vol. 2. 5(17), 91. (In Persian).
Folkie, P. (1982). General Philosophy. (Y. Mahdavi, Trans.). Tehran: Tehran University Press, 52.
Foroughi, M. A. (1997). Garlic wisdom in Europe. Tehran: Safi Ali Shah, 190. (In Persian).
Gampartz, T. (1997). Greek thinkers. (M.H. Lotfi, Trans.). Tehran: Kharazmi .Vol. I.83.
Gary Ling, E. T. (2001). New Attitudes in Philosophy. (Y.Daneshvar, Trans.). Qom: Cultural Institute of Taha University of Qom. (In Persian).
Ghavam Safari, M. (2009). Plato's non-historical interpretation of the Protagoras standard of humanity. Quarterly Mind, (10), 29. (In Persian).
Ghorbani, G. (2010). Analysis and critique of the method of Descartes in philosophy. Epistemology and related fields, 11 (41), 24&27-28. (In Persian).
Guthrie, W. K. C. (1996). History of Greek Philosophy. (M. Ghavam Safari, Trans.). Tehran: Fekre Rooz.Vol. 11. 79. (In Persian).
Halabi, A. A. (2004). History of Philosophy in Europe. Tehran: ghatreh. Vol. I. 41-46. (In Persian).
Harrison Barbot, A. (2014). Philosophical skills. (F. Haji Mirzaei, Trans.). Tehran: Farzan Rooz, 121. (In Persian).
Jafari, M. T. (2014). Epistemology. Tehran: Allameh Jafari Publishing and Publishing Institute, 589. (In Persian).
Joanna, H. (2010). Philosophy in Action, Meeting in Philosophy for Children, Developing Creative Philosophical Research, through the Children's Literature, International Conference on the International Day of Philosophy. Tehran: The Philosophy of Iran, 446.
Kar, F. (1944). The ancient Greek philosophy of pre-Socrates. Tehran: Rasti. (In Persian).
Kazemi, S. H. (2009). Knowledge from Descartes' perspective. Supervisor: Mehdi Dehbashi. Consultant professor: Saeed Binaee Motlagh. (In Persian).
Khanjarkhani, M., Safaei Moghadam, M., & Pakseresht, M, J. (2017).Philosophical Hermeneutics and its Implications for Self-Understanding, Otherness- Understanding and Together – Understanding, in Education. Journal of Foundations of Education. 6 (2), 14. (In Persian).
Maggie, B. (2009). The story of philosophy. (M. Salehi Allameh, Trans.). Tehran: Book Ame, 43. (In Persian).
Mohammadi, M. (2005). Sophist, Protagoras and human-centric. Quarterly journal of religious thought, (1). (In Persian).
Mojtahedi, K. (2001). Philosophy and the West. Tehran: Sepehr, 172. (In Persian).
Movahedian, A. (2010). The issue of faith and doubt from the perspective of Paul Tillich. Haft Asman Quarterly, Journal. (7), 48. (In Persian).
Naghibzadeh, M. A. (1995). Kant's philosophy of awakening from the sleep of dogmatism. Tehran: Aqah Publication, 40. (In Persian).
Naji, S. (2004). The concept of philosophy in the philosophy program for children and adolescents. Journal of Science and Religion, (25), 41. (In Persian).
Nasri, A., & Omy, Z (2015). Cartoons on the bases of thought from the perspective of Richard Powell and Allame Ja'fari. Quarterly Journal of the Mind, (63), 110. (In Persian).
Neisiani, S. (2016). Sophist and his effects on Athens Priscilla. Khradnameh, (17). (In Persian).
Omid, M. (2008). Reflection of Descartes' doubt Theory, Philosophy and Islamic kallam. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University, 168. (In Persian).
Papekin, R., & Sterrol, A. (2010). General Philosophy. (S. Jalaluddin Mojtabavi, Trans.). Tehran: Kimiya e hozor. (In Persian).
Plato. (1970). the Complete Period of Plato's Works; Protagoras Treatise. (R. Kaviani, Trans.). Tehran: Kharazmi. (In Persian).
Plato. (1961). Plato's period of study, Etienne treatise. (M. H. & R.Kaviani, Trans.). Tehran: Kharazmi. (In Persian).
Popkin, R. H. (2003).The History of Skepticism. Oxford University press, 359.
Rahimian, S., & Rahbar, H. (2009). Epistemology in the philosophical system of Descartes and sohrevardi.Philosophical Meditatins. University of Zanjan .Vol.1, No.4. (In Persian).
Russell, B. (1994). History of Western Philosophy. (N. Daribandari, Trans.). Tehran: Flight, 423. (In Persian).
Reeis Zadeh, M., & Abbasi, B. (2005). The Pain of Philosophy, the Lesson of Philosophy: A Descriptor of Descartes' Philosophy as Its Worldview. Tehran: Desert, 396. (In Persian).
Rashad, M. (1986). Philosophy since the beginning of history. Tehran: Sadr, 210. (In Persian).
Sadri, J., & Gholamreza, R. (2011). Descartes Methodological Problem Analysis. History of philosophy, 2(1). (In Persian).
Sajjadi, S. M. (2011). Dogmatism and Skepticism: The Dilemma of Educational- Systems in Islamic. Research Paper on Educational Principles, 1(2), 40. (In Persian).
Sam Khaniani, A. A., & Mousavinia, Z. (2014). Husserlian phenomenology in the majid tales, Journal of Child Literature Studies of Shiraz University, 15(2), 59. (In Persian).
Sanei Dareh Bidi, M. (1997). Descartes' philosophy. Tehran al-Hoda, 2. & 216. (In Persian).
Shahraeeni, S. M., & Azadikhah, S. M. (2014). The position of doubt in the establishment of Descartes' intellectual system. Wisdom and Philosophy, 10(1, 67. (In Persian).
Shamshiri, B. (2007). Explaining the Logical Relationship of Evaluation Methods with the Principles of Educational Philosophy Governing the Iranian Education System. Two Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities University of Shiraz, 26(3), 88. (In Persian).
Ziba kalam, F. (2011). The philosophical thought of the West. Tehran: University of Tehran Press. (In Persian).