نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

هدف اصلی این پژوهش، تبیین چگونگی اثر فرهنگ بر تحول کودک بر مبنای نظریه آشیانه تحول می‌باشد. برای دست‌یابی به این هدف از روش مطالعه کتابخانه‌ای بهره گرفته شد. نتایج به دست آمده از این مطالعه نشان داد که فرهنگ، عامل های محیطی تأثیرگذار بر تحول کودک را سازمان می دهد. از این رو، اثر این عامل‌ها در مقایسه با عامل‌های سازمان نایافته بر تحول بیشتر است. همچنین، باورهای قومیتی والدین به مثابه غشایی که با نظام های بزرگ‌تر فرهنگی در ارتباطند، در فرایند تحول نقش سازمان ده را ایفا می‌کند و هدف‌های تربیتی و در نتیجه کارکردهای فرزندپروری را شکل می دهند. در این میان، کودک نقش فعالی در تحول خود دارد، به طوری که کودک و آشیانه تحولی اش با یکدیگر پرورش و توسعه می یابند. این مهم حاکی از پویایی و انعطاف پذیری آشیانه تحول است تا بتواند با تفاوت‌های فردی کودک انطباق یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Culture, Parenting Goals and Parenting Practices: The Theory of Developmental Niche

نویسندگان [English]

  • zahra tabibi
  • Aghileh Sadat Mousavi Jahanabadi

Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

چکیده [English]

The aim of the current study was to explain the way culture influences the development of children based on the theory of developmental niche. For this, a library based method was conducted. The current research concluded that culture organizes the environmental factors influencing child development. Hence, organized factors impact development more likely than unorganized ones. The theory gives a more important role to parental ethnotheory subsystem which acts as a nexus through which parents’ beliefs are related to the larger culture and organises the other two subsystems. Also, parental ethnotheories influences parenting goals and in consequence parenting practices. Additionally, child has an active role in his/her development. Child and his/her niche are developed together. This implies that developmental niche is dynamic and flexible adapting itself to individual differences of children.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Culture
  • parenting
  • sleeping patterns
  • temperament
  • emotion expression
  • ethnotheories
Arden, J. B. & Linford, L. (2009). Brain-based therapy with children and adolescents, John Wiley and Sons, USA.
Berk, L. (2008). Developmental Psychology (From conception through childhood). (Y. Seyyed Mohammadi, Trans), Tehran: Arasbaran. (In Persian).
Bornstein, M. H. (2006). Parenting science and practice. In: W. Damon, KA. Renninger & IE. Sigel, editors. Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Child psychology in practice. 6. New York: Wiley; pp. 893–949.
Cervera, M. D. & Mendez, R. M. (2006). Temperament and ecological context among Yucatec Mayan children, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30 (4), 326–337. DOI: 10.1177/0165025406072794
Farahani, M. T. (2007). The relationship between 15-18 years olds' mental health and parenting style and socio-economic status. Research in Psychological Health, 1, 48-55 (In Persian).
Fiske, A., Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R. & Nisbett, R. E. (1998). The cultural matrix of social psychology. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology (4th ed., pp. 915–81). San Francisco: McGraw-Hill.
Harkness, S. & Super, C. M. (2000). Culture and psychopathology, In: A. Sameroff, M. Lewis, & S.M. Miller, (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology, Kluwer Academics.
Harkness, S., & Super, C. M. (2001). Culture and parenting. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting, 2nd ed. (pp 253-280). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Harkness, S., Super, C. M., Axia, V., Eliasz, A., Palacios, J. & Welles-Nystrm, B. (2002). Cultural pathways to successful parenting, Newsletter of International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development, Number 1 Serial No. 38
Harkness, S., & Super, C. M. (2005). Themes and variations: Parental ethnotheories in western cultures. In K. Rubin & O.-B. Chung (Eds.), Parental beliefs, parenting, and child development in cross-cultural perspective. (pp. 61-79). New York: Psychology Press.
Harkness, S. & Super, C. M. (2009). Parenting across cultures. SGI Quarterly: A Buddhist Forum for Peace, Culture and Education, Retrieved from http://www.sgiguarterly.org/feature2009Jan-2.html.
Harkness, S., Blom, M., Oliva, A., Moscardino, U., Zylicz, P. O., Rios Bermudez, M., Feng, X., Axia, G., & Super, C. M. (2007). Teachers’ ethnotheories of the ‘ideal student’ in five western cultures, Comparative Education, 43(1), pp. 113–135.Harkness, S., Super, C.M., Bermdez, M.R., Moscardino, U., Rha, J-H., Mavridis, C. J., Bonichini, S., Huitrn, B., Welles-Nystrm, B., Palacios, J., Hyun, O, K., Soriano, G., & Zylicz, P. O. (2010). Parental Ethnotheories of Children’s learning, in: David Lancy, John Bock & Suzanne Gaskins (eds.), The Anthropology of Learning in Childhood. Lanham: Altamira Press, pp. 65–84
Harkness, S., Super, C.M., & Marvidis, C.J. (2011). Parental ethnotheories about children’s socioemotional development. In: X.Chen & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), Socioemotional development in cultural context. (pp. 73-98). New York: Guilford Press.
Harkness, S., Super, C. M., Moscardino, U., Rha, J. H., Blom, M. J. M., Huitron, B., Johnston, C., Sutherland, M., Hyun, O. K., Axia, G., & Palacios, J. (2007). Cultural Models and Developmental Agendas: Implications for Arousal and Self-regulation in Early Infancy, Journal of Developmental Processes, 2(1), 5-39.
Holisaz, M., Mazaheri, M.A., Panaghi, L. & Hasani, F. (2015). Iranian mothers’ parenting values: A phenomenological study. Cultural Strategy (Rahbord Farhang), 29, 121-148. (In Persian)
Kermani, H. & Brenner, M. E. (2000) Maternal scaffolding in the child’s zone of proximal development across tasks: Cross-cultural perspectives. Journal of research in childhood education, 15, 1-30.
Padmawidjaja, I. A. & Chao, R. K. (2010). Parental Beliefs and Their Relation to the Parental Practices of Immigrant Chinese Americans and European Americans. In Stephen T. Russell, Lisa J. Crockett, and Ruth K. Chao (Eds), Asian American Parenting and Parent-Adolescent Relationships (pp. 37-60). New York: Springer.
Parmar, P., Harkness, S., & Super, C. M. (2004). Asian and Euro-American parents' ethnotheories of play and learning: Effects on pre-school children's home routines and school behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(2), 97-104.
Parmar, P., Harkness, S., & Super, C. M. (2008). Teacher or playmate? Asian immigrant and Euro-American parents’ participation in their young children’s daily activities. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 36 (2), 163-176.
Saefe, S., Kadivar, P., Koromi Noori, R., Lotfabadi, H. (2010). Developmemtal Psychology 1. Tehran: SAMT. (In Persian)
Stevenson, A. (2010). Cultural Issues in Psychology: A Student’s Handbook. Routledge, USA.
Super, C. M., & Harkness, S. (1997). The cultural structuring of child development. In J.Berry, P.R. Dasen, and T.S. Saraswathi (Eds), Handbook of Cross Cultural Psychology, 2nd Edition, Vol.2 (pp.3-29). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Super, C. M., & Harkness, S. (2002). Culture structures the environment for development. Human Development, 45(4), 270-274.
Super, C. M., Axia, G., Harkness, S., Welles-Nyström, B., Zylicz, P. O., Rios Bermúdez, M., Bonichini, S., Parmar, P., Moscardino, U., Kolar, V., Palacios, J., & McGurk, H. (2008).Culture, temperament, and the “difficult child” in seven Western cultures. European Journal of Developmental Science, 2(1-2), 136-157.
Super, C.M., Harkness, S., van Tijen, N., van der Vlugt, E., Dykstra, J., & Fintelman, M. (1996). The three R’s of Dutch child rearing and the socialization of infant arousal. In S. Harkness & C.M. Super (Eds.), Parents’ cultural belief systems: Their origins, expressions, and consequences (pp. 447–466). New York: Guilford Press.
Trommsdorff, G., & Cole, P. M. (2011). Emotion, self-regulation, and social behavior in cultural contexts. In: X.Chen & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), Socioemotional development in cultural context. New York: Guilford Press.
Van Campen, K. S., & Russell, S. T. (2010). Cultural differences in parenting practices: What Asian American families can teach us (Frances McClelland Institute for Children, Youth, and Families Research Link, Vol. 2, No. 1). Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona.