نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه اصفهان

2 دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشگاه استانبول آیدین

چکیده

هدف اصلی این مقاله، شناسایی مؤلفه‌های شک سازنده در آثار ویتگنشتاین متأخر و پیامدهای تربیتی آن در تربیت ذهن نقاد است. برای دستیابی به این هدف از تحلیل و تفسیر استفاده شد. براساس نتایج به دست آمده، ذهن نقاد برای شناخت حقیقی می‌بایست شک سازنده داشته باشد که بر پایه دلایل سنجیده می‌شود. آثار شک، بایستی چیزی بیش از اظهار کلامی شک بوده و تأثیر شک بر رفتار و عمل ذهن نقاد قابل‌مشاهده باشد. برای داشتن شک سازنده، بایستی به بازی‌های زبانی شک تسلط داشت. ازآنجاکه قواعد حاکم بر صورت‌های اجتماعی جهان‌شمول نیستند، لازم است ذهن نقاد در سنجش امور، مطابق باورهای حاکم بر بازی‌های زبانی هر حوزه به بررسی بپردازد. همچنین، ذهن نقاد، در نقادی امور نمی‌تواند به صورت یکجا تمام باورهایش را به چالش بکشد؛ زیرا شک مستلزم مبانی است. اما در عوض می‌تواند در تک‌تک باورهایش شک نماید. در نهایت، برای پرورش ذهن‌های نقاد، بجای ساختار محافظه‌کارانه، می‌بایست فضاهای تربیتی، منعطف بوده و فرصت حضور در جامعه و کسب تجربه را برای فراگیران به منظور کسب جهان- تصویر مهیا سازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Constructive Skepticism and Educating a Critical Mind: a Reflection on the Later Wittgenstein’s Thought

نویسندگان [English]

  • kamal nosrati heshi 1
  • Hassanali Bakhtiyar Nasrabadi 1
  • Khosrow Bagheri Noaparast 2
  • somayyeh radmard 3

1 university of isfahan

2 university of tehran

3 istanbul aydin university

چکیده [English]

The purpose of research is to investigate the components of constructive skepticism in later writings of Wittgenstein and its implications on the development of critical mind. This research conducted analytical and interpretive approach. Results revealed that the critical mind must have a constructive skepticism which is determined based on reasons. The effect of doubt must amount to something and can be seen on the behavior and practice of the critical mind. In order to have constructive doubt, it must have mastered the language games of doubt. In addition, since the governing rules in the forms of life are not universal, it is necessary for the critical mind to examine affairs according to the ruling beliefs in the language games of each domain. Moreover, the critical mind, in the critique of affairs, cannot simultaneously challenge all his beliefs, because the doubt still requires grounds, but instead he can doubt on each of his beliefs. Finally, in order to educate the critical minds, interactive spaces instead of conservative ones should be more flexible and provide opportunities for learners to participate in a learning community and gain experience within the being fostered community in order to achieve world-picture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • The later Wittgenstein
  • constructive skepticism
  • critical minds
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